Olav Kjellevold Olsen
Professor II - Campus Bergen
Institutt for ledelse og organisasjon
Zahlquist, Lena Aadnevik; Hetland, Jørn, Einarsen, Ståle Valvatne, Bakker, Arnold B., Hoprekstad, Øystein Løvik, Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2022)
Daily interpersonal conflicts and daily exposure to bullying behaviors at work: The moderating roles of trait anger and trait anxiety
Building on the three-way model of workplace bullying and its underlying theories, this study investigates the role of trait anger and trait anxiety in the link between daily interpersonal conflicts and daily exposure to bullying behaviors. Using a quantitative diary study design, we approached 57 military naval cadets participating in a tall-ship voyage across the Atlantic, from Europe to North America, in 2017. They responded to a questionnaire on a daily basis over a period of 30 days—yielding 1428 measurement points. Prior to the voyage, participants also responded to a general questionnaire including measures of trait anger and trait anxiety. As hypothesized, multilevel analyses showed positive main effects of daily interpersonal conflicts on interpersonal conflicts the next day and exposure to bullying behaviors the same day. However, daily involvement in interpersonal conflicts did not predict exposure to bullying behaviors the next day. Moreover, and in support of the hypothesized moderating effects, trait anger (but not trait anxiety) interacted positively with daily interpersonal conflicts in the prediction of interpersonal conflicts the next day as well as exposure to bullying behaviors the same day. The study suggests that interpersonal conflicts persist and have an immediate effect on exposure to bullying behaviors and that this is particularly the case for individuals high (vs. low) on trait anger. We discuss how these findings contribute to the three-way model of workplace bullying, as well as possible practical implications.
Hetland, Jørn; Bakker, Arnold B., Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2022)
Daily work pressure and task performance: The moderating role of recovery and sleep
Frontiers in Psychology, 13 Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.857318
Bakker, Arnold B.; Hetland, Jørn, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Espevik, Roar (2022)
Daily transformational leadership: A source of inspiration for follower performance?
European Management Journal Doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2022.04.004
This study uses the full-range leadership model to argue that on days when leaders engage in transformational leadership behaviors, they identify follower strengths and stimulate followers to show personal initiative. We propose that transformational leadership is related to follower work engagement and performance through follower strengths use and personal initiative. Moreover, we hypothesize that followers' personal initiative is most effective when followers use their strengths. A total of 57 Norwegian naval cadets filled out a diary booklet for 30 days (response = 72.6%; n = 1242). Multilevel modeling analyses largely supported our hypotheses. On the days when leaders used transformational leadership behaviors such as intellectual stimulation and individual consideration, followers were more likely to use their strengths and take initiative. These behaviors, in turn, predicted next-day work engagement and next-day job performance. Moreover, followers’ personal initiative was particularly related to work engagement when strengths use was high rather than low. We discuss how these findings contribute to the leadership literature by showing how leaders inspire their followers to lead themselves. In addition, we elaborate on the practical implications for leadership training.
Sørlie, Henrik; Hetland, Jørn, Bakker, Arnold B., Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2022)
Daily autonomy and job performance: Does person-organization fit act as a key resource?
In the present study, we integrate Person-Organization (P-O) fit and Job Demands-Resources theories to argue that P-O fit (i.e., value congruence between person and organization) is a key resource that facilitates the accumulation and activation of situational job resources. We hypothesize that P-O fit strengthens the well-established positive relationship between job autonomy and job performance. Measures of objective P-O fit were obtained for 43 Norwegian naval cadets before embarking on a training mission onboard a sailing ship. During the mission, we measured daily self-reported autonomy as well as peer-rated task and contextual performance for 30 consecutive days. As predicted, the results of multilevel modeling analyses showed that the relationship between daily autonomy and (a) next- (but not same-) day task performance, and (b) next- (and same-) day contextual performance is stronger positive for individuals high (vs. low) in P-O fit. Moreover, effects of the daily autonomy – P-O fit interaction were noticeable on performance several days after. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Hetland, Jørn; Bakker, Arnold B., Demerouti, Evangelia, Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2021)
Work pressure and recovery during a cross-atlantic voyage: A test of the stressor-detachment model.
International Journal of Stress Management, 28(4), s. 245- 255. Doi: 10.1037/str0000170
Espevik, Roar; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge, Saus-Rose, Evelyn, Sanden, Sverre & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2021)
Teamwork on Patrol: Investigating Teamwork Processes and Underlaying Coordinating Mechanisms in a Police Training Program
The Big Five theory suggests that five components in teamwork are essential for team effectiveness in stressful environments. Furthermore, three coordinating mechanisms are claimed to be decisive to upholding and informing vital teamwork processes. Although much research has been conducted into the Big Five theory and its components, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet been made of the relative importance of the three mechanisms and their impact on team effectiveness. Also, only a few studies have tried to investigate whether the components and the coordinating mechanisms are trainable. This study aims to make a theoretical contribution to the part of the theory focusing on the coordinating mechanisms. Secondly, it investigates whether training can improve team performance. Working in teams of two, 166 police officers participated in a simulated operational scenario. Correlational analyses indicated that all Big Five teamwork behaviors and coordinating mechanisms relate to external ratings of team performance. Only the mechanisms of Closed Loop Communication (CLC) and Shared Mental Model (SMM) predicted performance indicators, with SMM predicting above and beyond the effect of CLC. No effect of the training program was found. The study provides new evidence in a police situation that the most important coordinating mechanism of the Big Five theory is that of shared mental models, which in turn has consequences for the type of training needed.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Pallesen, Ståle & Myrseth, Helga (2021)
Gaming in the Military: A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Gaming Behavior Among Conscripts During Military Service and Associated Risk Factors
Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12 Doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.591038
A central task in military leadership is to take care of one's followers, which presupposes knowledge about relevant risk factors. Very little research has focused on the risks of developing problematic gaming behavior during military service. The present study tries to bridge this gap by assessing prevalence rates and associated risk factors of problem gaming in a sample of Norwegian conscripts across two time-points: at the beginning and end of duty. The sample comprised 2,555 individuals aged 18–24 years. A total of 1,017 (39.8%) completed the questionnaire at Time 1, ~1 month after starting the military service. Respondents who completed the first wave, at enrollment, were invited to participate in wave two, after completing their service. At Time 2, 259 (25.5%) participants responded. The prevalence rates of gaming addiction were 0.5% at Time 1 and 4.6% at Time 2, while problem gaming use was reported by 4.8% of the sample at Time 1 and 8.1% of the sample at Time 2. Paired sample t-tests revealed an overall significant increase in the mean scores on the Gaming Addiction Scale from T1 (M = 0.86, SD = 1.35) to T2 (M = 1.31, SD = 2.14), t = −2.40, p < 0.05. According to the reliable change index, 17.1% of the sample showed a reliable negative change, whereas 8.3% exhibited a reliable positive change in gaming addiction scores. However, no psychological variables measured at T1 (loneliness, boredom proneness-Internal, boredom proneness-External, anxiety, depression, game addiction, and time spent gaming) were related to attrition (from T1 to T2), or worsening of game addiction, while a positive relationship was observed between boredom proneness-External and reduced gaming addiction from T1 to T2. In sum, we observed a tendency toward a negative change in gaming behaviors during military service which may complicate the soldiers' reintegration into civilian life after their service. More research is needed to assess potential gaming problems in the Military.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Johansen, Rino Bandlitz & Hystad, Sigurd William (2021)
Do Ideals Differ and Matter? An Investigation of Authentic Leadership Ideals Among Norwegian Military Officers Across Generations – and Its Impact on Leadership Practice
The aim of the present study was to learn more about the content of leadership ideals among Norwegian military officers, and to what degree such ideals influence the officers’ actual leadership practice. We have also explored possible generational differences between generation X officers (born between 1965 and 1980) and generation Y officers (born between 1980 and 1998) related to leadership ideals. The sample consisted of 117 younger and 91 older Norwegian officers. The ideals framing the study were operationalized as authentic leadership (AL), portrayed in the literature as an ideal form of leadership. The results showed that the officers in both generations perceived all dimensions of AL as ideal. Younger officers, however, perceived an internalized moral perspective and balanced processing as less ideal than their older colleagues. No relationship between AL ideals and practice was found for the sample, after controlling for the effect of self-evaluations. However, the results indicated a positive influence of ideals among the young officers. These results are discussed in relation to the existing literature and practical implications. Suggestions for future studies are also outlined.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Hetland, Jørn, Matthiesen, Stig Berge, Hoprekstad, Øystein Løvik, Espevik, Roar & Bakker, Arnold B. (2020)
Passive avoidant leadership and safety non-compliance: A 30 days diary study among naval cadets
Safety Science, s. 1- 8. Doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2020.105100
The leadership literature suggests that passive leadership undermines employee safety performance; because passive leadership behavior signals that the leader is not committed to organizational safety goals. We tested this hypothesis and investigated the role of two possible moderators, moral disengagement and intolerance of uncertainty. Participants were 78 naval cadets who responded to daily surveys during a 30 days voyage on board of a sailing ship (N occasions is 2166 for H1 and 1910 for H2– H4). The results of multilevel analyses showed as expected that a substantial portion (49%) of the daily safety non-compliance was caused by variation within each crewmember from day to day, and that an increase in daily passive avoidant leadership was related to increased daily safety non-compliance. More unexpectedly, those crewmembers high (and not low) on moral disengagement and intolerance of uncertainty were less influenced by passive avoidant leadership in terms of daily safety violations. Several explanations for the results are discussed.
Ågotnes, Kari Wik; Skogstad, Anders, Hetland, Jørn, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Espevik, Roar, Bakker, Arnold B. & Einarsen, Ståle (2020)
Daily work pressure and exposure to bullying-related negative acts: The role of daily transformational and laissez-faire leadership
The present study integrates the work environment hypothesis and the effort-reward imbalance model to argue that work-related antecedents of workplace bullying are moderated by the day-to-day leadership practices of one’s immediate leader. Specifically, we propose that individuals’ daily experiences of work pressure are positively related to their daily experiences of bullying-related negative acts. Moreover, we claim that this relationship is weaker on days when those individuals report high (vs. low) levels of transformational leadership behaviour, and stronger on days when they report high (vs. low) levels of laissez-faire leadership behaviour. To test these three hypotheses, we asked 61 naval cadets on a tall ship sailing from Northern Europe to North America to fill out a diary questionnaire for 36 days yielding 1509 observations. The results of multilevel analyses supported our hypothesis of a positive relationship of cadets’ daily reports of work pressure with their daily reports of bullying-related negative acts. In addition, laissez-faire leadership behaviour (but not transformational leadership behaviour) moderated the work pressure–bullying-related negative acts relationship. Our findings support the assumption that laissez-faire leadership is an important component in the development of conflict escalation and workplace bullying, while transformational leadership is not. We discuss theoretical as well as practical implications of these findings.
Einarsen, Kari; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland, Hetland, Jørn, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Zahlquist, Lena, Mikkelsen, Eva Gemzøe, Koløen, Justine & Einarsen, Ståle (2020)
Outcomes of a proximal workplace intervention against workplace bullying and harassment: A protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial among Norwegian industrial workers
Background: Workplace bullying is an important and prevalent risk factors for health impairment, reduced workability and lowered efficiency among both targets and observers. Development and tests of effective organizational intervention strategies are therefore highly important. The present study describes the background, design, and protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an organization-wide intervention on preventing workplace bullying with a focus on promoting active and constructive bystander behavior. The main overarching goal is to develop an easy to use and standardized organizational intervention based on theory and research in the role of bystanders in bullying situations with the potential of reducing the prevalence of workplace bullying. The theoretical framework of the study is theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991). Methods/Design: Using a full randomized control trial (RCT) design, this project will empirically test the outcomes of an intervention program targeting bullying and harassment as the main distal outcomes and perceived behavioral control and helping behavior among bystanders as the main proximal outcome. A 1-year cluster randomized controlled design will be utilized, in which controls will also receive the intervention. About 1,500 workers from two different locations of a Norwegian industrial company will be randomized into one intervention group and two control groups with at least 400 workers in each group. A survey will be conducted electronically. With a total of three assessments over 10–12 months, the time interval between the measurement times will be 4 months. Thus, the data collection will take place at baseline, completion of the intervention and at 4 months follow-up. Discussion: This study primarily aims to develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention based on the abovementioned features with the ultimate aim of reducing the prevalence of workplace bullying, by awareness raising and training of bystanders. Manager involvement and involvement of the union representative and the elected health and safety representatives is an important feature of the program. Results of the intervention study will provide important information regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions against workplace bullying when focusing on bystanders, particularly so regarding the role of bystander awareness, bystander self-efficacy, and bystander behavioral control on the one hand and the prevalence of bullying and harassment on the other.
Bakker, Arnold B.; Hetland, Jørn, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Espevik, Roar & De Vries, Juriena (2020)
Job crafting and playful work design: Links with performance during busy and quiet days
This study uses proactive work behavior and job demands–resources (JD-R) theories to propose that employees can use two proactive behavioral strategies to improve the internal organizational environment, namely job crafting and playful work design (PWD). Whereas job crafting concerns the proactive adjustment of the job, PWD refers to the active creation of conditions at work that foster play. We hypothesize that individuals perform better on the days they seek job resources and challenges, or design their work to be playful. In addition, we propose that seeking job resources and reducing job demands are most effective when work pressure is high, and that seeking challenges and PWD are most effective when work pressure is low. A total of 77 Norwegian naval cadets completed a diary questionnaire for 30 consecutive days (total N = 2310). Results of multilevel modeling showed that daily seeking job resources, seeking challenges, and playful work design were each positively related to colleague-ratings of job performance. Reducing job demands was negatively related to performance. Furthermore, as hypothesized, seeking challenges and PWD were most effective when the work pressure was low. These findings contribute to the proactive work motivation and JD-R literatures by showing which work strategies are positively related to job performance, and under which conditions.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; van Heesch, Philip, Søreide, Christian & Hystad, Sigurd William (2020)
Trust After Just 45 Seconds? An Experimental Vignette Study of How Leader Behavior and Emotional States Influence Immediate Trust in Strangers
Many critical and unexpected situations are handled by people that have never met. In the literature, development of immediate trust has been identified as a prerequisite for such temporary groups and leadership to function well. Limited experimental research has studied what leadership stimulates immediate trust between strangers. The present study investigate how four leadership styles, combining autocratic or democratic leadership behavior with low or high emotional stability, is related to immediate trust in a leader displayed through a 45-s video vignette of a car accident. A sample of 280 adults, randomly assigned to one of four conditions (1, autocratic/stable; 2, autocratic/unstable; 3, democratic/stable; 4, democratic/unstable) rated immediate trust after watching the vignette. The results show that autocratic and emotionally stable leaders were on average rated higher on immediate trust than all other leadership styles, after controlling for generalized trust.
Nordmo, Morten; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Hetland, Jørn, Espevik, Roar, Bakker, Arnold B. & Pallesen, Ståle (2020)
It's been a hard day's night: A diary study on hardiness and reduced sleep quality among naval sailors
Nordmo, Morten; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Hetland, Jørn, Espevik, Roar, bakker, arnold bastiaan & Pallesen, Ståle (2019)
Daily sleep quality and naval work performance: the role of leadership
Background: Poor sleep is a growing concern in naval settings. Previous research has demonstrated that both civilian and military naval work strains sleep quality as well as a negative relationship between sleep quality and crew work performance. Variables moderating this relationship, such as leadership are of interest. Materials and methods: The present paper investigates how sailors’ daily variations in sleep quality influence self-rated naval work-performance and interacts with perceived daily transformational leadership during a 30-day naval training mission. Results: Using multi-level analysis, we found significant positive main effects of sleep quality and transformational leadership on naval work performance. Transformational leadership moderated the sleep quality-work performance link. Individuals who experienced higher levels of leadership were less prone to reductions in performance after poor sleep. Conclusions: Overall, the results suggest that leadership can partly negate some of the reduction in performance that often accompanies poor sleep, and that leadership becomes more important as the crew becomes sleepier
Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Saus-Rose, Evelyn, Espevik, Roar, Sanden, Sverre & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2019)
The indirect effect of experience between personality hardiness and situational awareness
Studies on the relation between personality and Situation Awareness (SA) have been inconclusive. The present study investigates the relation between personality hardiness and SA during a simulated police scenario using a mediation approach. One hundred and sixty-seven police officers completed the test in a scenario with the arrest of a suspected perpetrator. The results showed a direct relationship neither between hardiness and SA, nor a total effect of the model tested. However, an indirect relationship between hardiness and SA, through the amount of annual operational training, beyond mandatory training, occurred. This indirect effect of training occurred for the total hardiness score, and for the control dimension on the facet level of the Dispositional Resilience Scale (15 items). The findings were interpreted as police officers high on hardiness being more motivated and engaged in voluntary operational training. By being more involved in training, they were gaining more experience in perceiving and interpreting critical stimuli in operational scenarios. Thus, the findings of an indirect effect was seen as a result of the relationship between experience and SA.
Hoprekstad, Øystein Løvik; Hetland, Jørn, Bakker, Arnold B., Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Espevik, Roar, Wessel, Martin & Einarsen, Ståle (2019)
How long does it last? Prior victimization from workplace bullying moderates the relationship between daily exposure to negative acts and subsequent depressed mood
Pallesen, Ståle; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Eide, Elisabeth Mong, Nortvedt, Benedicte, Grønli, Janne, Larøi, Frank, Nordmo, Morten & Glomlien, Fride E. (2018)
Sleep deprivation and hallucinations. A qualitative study of military personnel.
Military Psychology, 30(5), s. 430- 436. Doi: 10.1080/08995605.2018.1478561
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2018)
Effective Cooperation Between Strangers in Unexpected and Dangerous Situations – A Matter of “Swift Trust”
Torgersen, Glenn-Egil (red.). Interaction: ‘Samhandling’ Under Risk: A Step Ahead of the Unforeseen
Matthiesen, Stig Berge & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2018)
Seksuell trakassering i operative miljøer
Necesse, 3(1), s. 58- 69. Doi: 10.21339/2464-353x.3.1.58
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2018)
The good, the bad or the ugly. Ein undersøking om betydninga av å oppleve seg som moralsk god i militære operasjonar – og implikasjonar for operativt lederskap.
Necesse, 3(1), s. 19- 31. Doi: 10.21339/2464-353x.3.1.19
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Harris, Anette & Hystad, Sigurd William (2018)
God under press. En operasjonalisering av moralsk robusthet i krevende operative Situasjoner
Necesse, 3(1), s. 72- 82. Doi: 10.21339/2464-353x.3.1.72
Espevik, Roar; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Waaler, Gudmund (2018)
God når det gjelder? Søken etter nye svar på gamle spørsmål
Myrseth, Helga; Hystad, Sigurd William, Säfvenbom, Reidar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2018)
Perception of specific military skills – the impact of perfectionism and self-efficacy
We investigated the development of specific military skills in Norwegian cadets during the three-year military academy training as well as the impact of perfectionism and self-efficacy on the development of these skills. Latent growth-curve models were performed with perfectionism as a time-invariant predictor and with self-efficacy as a time-varying predictor. There were significant increases in the Individual Coping Capacity (ICC) and Cooperation in Difficult Situations (CDS) subscales but not in the Motivation to Achievement (MA) subscale. The initial skill levels were not related to the growth of the skills. Both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism predicted initial values of ICC and CDS, explaining 5% of the variance in the initial ICC levels and 12% of the variance in the initial CDS levels. Perfectionism variables did not explain the development of the three types of military skills over time. Moreover, self-efficacy significantly predicted ICC at all time points and CDS and MA at all time points except at T3. We therefore concluded that cadets with high adaptive perfectionism scores are likely to have higher initial skill levels and that self-efficacious cadets are expected to show a greater development of military skills during military academy training.
Bakker, Arnold B.; Hetland, Jørn, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Espevik, Roar (2018)
Daily strengths use and employee well‐being: The moderating role of personality
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, s. 1- 25. Doi: 10.1111/joop.12243
Nordmo, Morten; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Rosseland, Ragna, Blågestad, Tone Fidje & Pallesen, Ståle (2018)
A Brief Report on a Reduced Preference for Passive-Avoidant Leadership After a Restless Night
Myrseth, Helga; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Borud, Einar Kristian & Strand, Leif Åge (2017)
Predictors of gaming behavior among military peacekeepers - exploring the role of boredom and loneliness in relation to gaming problems
Myrseth, Helga; Notelaers, Guy, Strand, Leif Åge, Borud, Einar Kristian & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2017)
Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire
Addiction, 112(9), s. 1658- 1668. Doi: 10.1111/add.13874
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Espevik, Roar (2017)
Moral antecedents of authentic leadership: Do moral justice reasoning, self-importance of moral identity and psychological hardiness stimulate authentic leadership?
Espevik, Roar; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Saus, Evelyn-Rose (2017)
Exploring the core of crew resource management course: speak up or stay silent
International Maritime Health, 68(2), s. 126- 132. Doi: 10.5603/IMH.2017.0023
Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Espevik, Roar, Saus-Rose, Evelyn, Sanden, Sverre, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Hystad, Sigurd William (2017)
Hardiness as a Moderator and Motivation for Operational Duties as Mediator: the Relation Between Operational Self-Efficacy, Performance Satisfaction, and Perceived Strain in a Simulated Police Training Scenario
Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32(4), s. 331- 339. Doi: 10.1007/s11896-017-9225-1
Myrseth, Helga; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Strand, Leif Åge & Borud, Einar Kristian (2017)
Gaming behavior among conscripts: The role of lower psychosocial well-being factors in explaining gaming addiction
Military Psychology, 29(2), s. 128- 142. Doi: 10.1037/mil0000148
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Pallesen, Ståle, Torsheim, Torbjørn & Espevik, Roar (2016)
The effect of sleep deprivation on leadership behaviour in military officers: an experimental study
Journal of Sleep Research, 25(6), s. 683- 689. Doi: 10.1111/jsr.12431
Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Espevik, Roar, Saus-Rose, Evelyn, Sanden, Sverre & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2016)
Note on a training program for brief decision making for frontline police officers
Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 31(3), s. 182- 188. Doi: 10.1007/s11896-015-9180-7
Hystad, Sigurd William; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Espevik, Roar & Säfvenbom, Reidar (2015)
On the stability of psychological hardiness: A three-year longitudinal study
Military Psychology, 27(3), s. 155- 168. Doi: 10.1037/mil0000069
More than 30 years of research has established psychological hardiness as an important individual resiliency resource. One important question still remaining is whether psychological hardiness can be trained. The present study explored this question longitudinally within the context of a 3-year military academy training program. Cadets from 3 different Norwegian military academies (N = 293) completed hardiness questionnaires during the first week of their training, and then again at the end of each year, resulting in a total of 4 waves of data. Using hierarchical linear modeling, no statistically significant effect of time on hardiness scores was found. The nonsignificant growth parameter was examined further using Bayesian statistics as an indicator of the relative evidence for the null hypothesis of no change over time versus the alternative hypothesis of change. The resulting Bayes factor provided substantial support in our data for the null hypothesis of no hardiness development during the 3-year officer training programs.
Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2013)
A new model for understanding teamwork onboard: the shipmate model
International Maritime Health, 64(2), s. 89- 94.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Pallesen, Ståle & Espevik, Roar (2013)
The impact of partial sleep deprivation on military naval officers' ability to anticipate moral and tactical problems in a simulated maritime combat operation
International Maritime Health, 64(2), s. 61- 65. Doi: 10.5603/imh.2019.0032
Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B., Hetland, Jørn, Demerouti, Evangelia, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Espevik, Roar (2013)
Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(1), s. 138- 157. Doi: 10.1111/joop.12041
Brandebo, Maria Fors; Sjöberg, Misa, Larsson, Ulf Gerry, Eid, Jarle & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2013)
Trust in a military context: What contributes to trust in superior and subordinate leaders?
Journal of Trust Research, 3(2), s. 125- 145. Doi: 10.1080/21515581.2013.820029
The aim was to explore which components military personnel in peacekeeping operations perceive as contributing to trust in their superior and subordinate leaders during international or national operations or exercises. Data were collected among 591 military officers and cadets from Norway and Sweden using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Two superior categories emerged: Individual-Related Characteristics and Communication and Relationship-Related Characteristics. The former is made up of the higher-level categories Personal attributes and Experience and competence. The latter is derived from the higher-level categories Consideration and inspiration and Effective communication. In turn, all higher-level categories are underpinned by a number of subcategories (13 altogether). When comparing trust in superior leaders with trust in subordinate leaders, the results show that trust in superiors is characterised to a greater extent by Communication and Relationship-related characteristics and also by Experience and professional knowledge. Trust in subordinate leaders is characterised to a greater extent by Personal attributes and Management competence.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga, Eidhamar, Are & Hystad, Sigurd William (2012)
Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian organizational justice scale
Psychological Reports, 110(2), s. 571- 588. Doi: 10.2466/01.08.14.PR0.110.2.571-588
Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Meeus, Philippine, Meling, John, Rogde, Torbjørn, Eid, Jarle, Espevik, Roar, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Pettersen, Jan Sommerfelt (2012)
Cultural differences in emotional intelligence among top officers on board merchant ships
International Maritime Health, 63(2), s. 90- 95.
The current research investigated cultural differences in emotional intelligence among top officers on board vessels of multicultural maritime companies. We found that Southeast Asian officers scored higher than European officers on the total Emotional Intelligence scale. When separating the EQ scale in its facets, higher scores for Asian officers were found on “Utilization of emotions”, “Handling relationships”, and on “Self-control”. Another finding was that Chief officers/ Second engineers scored higher than Masters/Chief Officers on “Self-control”. Finally, we found a negative correlation between age and scores on the facet of “Self-control”. These crosscultural differences may have implications for interpersonal relations and ship management.
Hyllengren, Peder; Larsson, Ulf Gerry, Fors, Maria, Sjöberg, Misa, Eid, Jarle & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2011)
Trust at First Sight: Swift Trust in Leaders in Temporary Military Groups
Team Performance Management, 17, s. 354- 368. Doi: 10.1108/13527591111182625
Purpose – The study seeks to illuminate factors that benefit, or do not benefit, the development of swift trust towards leaders in temporary military groups. Design/methodology/approach – The study group comprised 50 Norwegian cadets, 34 Norwegian military officers, 317 Swedish cadets, and 190 Swedish military officers. Data were gathered using a questionnaire which included two open-ended questions on aspects which contribute to swift trust (and lack thereof) towards leaders, as well as Likert-scale questions on temporary group characteristics, and a personality inventory. Findings – A qualitative clustering analysis of the open-ended responses yielded a hierarchical model of aspects which contribute to swift trust (or the lack thereof) with the following two superior categories: individual-related characteristics such as emotional stability and relationship-related characteristics such as encourage involvement and creativity. The latter superior category covaried most strongly with ratings of the groups' performance. Research limitations/implications – The results need to be substantiated by further research in other professional groups and cultures. Practical implications – The findings can help leaders of temporary groups become more conscious of how they may affect the group members' development of swift trust. Originality/value – The hierarchical and detailed model of aspects which contribute to swift trust in leaders of temporary groups is new.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Eid, Jarle & Larsson, Ulf Gerry (2010)
A field study of leader justice behavior in a morally intense operational context
Military Psychology, 22, s. S137- S156. Doi: 10.1080/08995601003644437
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Pallesen, Ståle & Eid, Jarle (2010)
The impact of partial sleep deprivation on moral reasoning in military officers
Sleep, 33(8), s. 1086- 1090.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Eid, Jarle & Johnsen, Bjørn Helge (2006)
Moral behavior and transformational leadership in Norwegian naval cadets
Military Psychology, 18, s. S37- S56.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Waaler, Gudmund (1)
Aldri mer 22. juli. Ledelse, beredskap og trening
Pacem : militært tidsskrift for etisk og teologisk refleksjon [Kronikk]
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge & Eid, Jarle (2022)
Operativ psykologi 3. Personellomsorg og ivaretakelse
[Non-fiction book]. Fagbokforlaget.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2020)
Moralsk stress og moralsk skade på korona-fronten i Norge
[Popular scientific article]. Necesse
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2020)
Feil som påfører andre liding, kan gje sjukepleiaren moralsk skade
[Popular scientific article]. Sykepleien
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2019)
Kp21: Moralsk stress og moralsk skade i operative yrke
Johnsen, Bjørn Helge & Eid, Jarle (red.). Operativ psykologi 2
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2019)
Kapittel 13: Tillit og samarbeid mellom fremmede i kritiske situasjoner
Johnsen, Bjørn Helge & Eid, Jarle (red.). Operativ psykologi 2
Zahlquist, Lena; Hetland, Jørn, Einarsen, Ståle, Bakker, Arnold B., Hoprekstad, Øystein Løvik, Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2019)
Daily interpersonal conflicts and exposure to daily negative acts: The moderating role of trait anger and trait anxiety
[Academic lecture]. 19th EAWOP Congress.
Sørlie, Henrik; Hetland, Jørn, Bakker, Arnold B., Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2019)
The relationship between Work Autonomy and daily Contextual Performance: The moderating role of Person-Organization Fit
[Academic lecture]. EAWOP 2019.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Eid, Jarle (2018)
Operativ ledelse- en introduksjon
Eid, Jarle & Johnsen, Bjørn Helge (red.). Operativ psykologi- 3.utgave
Hoprekstad, Øystein Løvik; Bakker, Arnold B., Olsen, Olav Kjellevold, Espevik, Roar, Wessel, Martin & Einarsen, Ståle (2017)
The Vicious Cycle of Bullying: How to Exposure to Negative Acts Undermines well-Being
[Academic lecture]. EAWOP 2017.
Hetland, Jørn; Bakker, Arnold B., Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2016)
interpersonal conflocts and daily negative and positive affect: exploring the moderating role of neuroticism
[Academic lecture]. 13th europeen academy of occupational health psychology.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2016)
Sleep deprivation and leadership
[Academic lecture]. International Congress of Psychology 2016.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2016)
Morals and authentic leadership
[Academic lecture]. International Congress of Psychology 2016.
Hetland, Jørn; Bakker, Arnold B., Hetland, Hilde, Espevik, Roar & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2015)
Does authentic leaders enhance followers daily job crafting behaviors? exploring the mediating role of autonomy and organizational justice
[Academic lecture]. 17th congress of EWOP.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Eid, Jarle (2015)
Einarsen, Ståle & Skogstad, Anders (red.). Ledelse på godt og vondt. Effektivitet og trivsel
Bakker, Arnold B.; Hetland, Jørn, Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Espevik, Roar (2013)
When does work engagement foster performance? A diary study among naval cadets
[Academic lecture]. 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology.
Einarsen, Ståle & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2012)
Self-image as a moderator of the relationship between exposure to acts of workplace bullying and negative affect - a diary study among naval officers
[Academic lecture]. The 8th international conference on workplace bullying and harassment - future challenges.
Hetland, Jørn & Olsen, Olav Kjellevold (2012)
Is passive avoidant and machiavellian leadership behaviours related to followers' psychological need satisfaction on a daily basis
[Academic lecture]. The 8th international conference on workplace bullying and harassment - future challenges.
Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Eid, Jarle & Johnsen, Bjørn Helge (2008)
Is There a Morals Component in Transformational Leadership?
[Academic lecture]. the American Psychological Association annual convention.
Eid, Jarle; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold & Johnsen, Bjørn Helge (2006)
Moral behaviour and transformational leadership
[Academic lecture]. Congress of Applied Psychology.