Ansattprofil

Carlos Velasco

Førsteamanuensis - Institutt for markedsføring

Biografi

Carlos Velasco is an Associate Professor at the Marketing Department, BI Norwegian Business School, where he co-founded the Centre for Multisensory Marketing. He received his D.Phil. in Experimental Psychology from Oxford University.

Carlos' work is at the intersection between psychology, marketing, and human–computer interaction, and focuses on understanding, and capitalizing on, our multisensory experiences and their guiding principles. He recently published the book "Multisensory experiences: Where the senses meet technology" (2020, Oxford University Press) and the edited collection "Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences" (2019, Palgrave Macmillan).

He has worked, and is currently working, with a number of companies from around the world on topics such as multisensory experiences, food and drink, branding, and consumer research. For more information, visit his website.

Publikasjoner

Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2020)

Multisensory Experiences: Where the senses meet technology

Oxford University Press.

Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Digital sensory marketing: Integrating new technologies into multisensory online experience

Journal of Interactive Marketing, 45, s. 42- 61. Doi: 10.1016/j.intmar.2018.07.004 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People are increasingly purchasing (e.g., food, clothes) and consuming (e.g., movies, courses) online where, traditionally, the sensory interaction has mostly been limited to visual, and to a lesser extent, auditory inputs. However, other sensory interfaces (e.g., including touch screens, together with a range of virtual, and augmented solutions) are increasingly being made available to people to interact online. Moreover, recent progress in the field of human–computer interaction means that online environments will likely engage more of the senses and become more connected with offline environments in the coming years. This expansion will likely coincide with an increasing engagement with the consumer's more emotional senses, namely touch/haptics, and possibly even olfaction. Forward-thinking marketers and researchers will therefore need to appropriate the latest tools/technologies in order to deliver richer online experiences for tomorrow's consumers. This review is designed to help the interested reader better understand what sensory marketing in a digital context can offer, thus hopefully opening the way for further research and development in the area.

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Palgrave Macmillan.

Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna, Petit, Olivia & Spence, Charles (2018)

Multisensory technology for flavor augmentation: A mini review

Frontiers in Psychology, 9(26) Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00026 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human–food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic) visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human–food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

Vi, Chi Thanh; Ablart, Damien, Gatti, Elia, Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2017)

Not just seeing, but also feeling art: Mid-air haptic experiences integrated in a multisensory art exhibition

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 108, s. 1- 14. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.004

Nozawa, Chisato; Togawa, Taku, Velasco, Carlos & Motoki, Kosuke (2021)

Consumer responses to the use of artificial intelligence in luxury and non-luxury restaurants

Food Quality and Preference

Motoki, Kosuke; Takahashi, Nozomi, Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2021)

Is classical music sweeter than jazz? Crossmodal influences of background music and taste/flavour on healthy and indulgent food preferences

Food Quality and Preference

Motoki, Kosuke; Park, Jaewood, Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Contextual acceptance of novel and unfamiliar foods: Insects, cultured meat, plant-based meat alternatives, and 3D printed foods

Food Quality and Preference

Velasco, Carlos; Barbosa Escobar, Francisco, Petit, Olivia & Wang, Qian Janice (2021)

Impossible (food) experiences in extended reality

Frontiers in Computer Science

Plata, Alejandro; Motoki, Kosuke, Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Trends in alcohol consumption in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-country analysis

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science

Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Campo, Raffaele, De Luca, Modesto & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Towards healthier cookie habits: Assessing the role of packaging visual appearance in the expectations for dietary cookies in digital environments

Frontiers in Psychology

Pombo, Maria & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

How aesthetic features convey the concept of brand premiumness

Psychology & Marketing

Barbosa Escobar, Francisco; Velasco, Carlos, Motoki, Kosuke, Byrne, Derek V. & Wang, Qian Janice (2021)

The temperature of emotions

PLOS ONE

Wang, Qian Janice; Barbosa Escobar, Francisco, Alves Da Mota, Patricia & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Getting started with virtual reality for sensory and consumer science: Current practices and future perspectives

Food Research International

Cornelio, Patricia; Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2021)

Multisensory integration as per technological advances: A review

Frontiers in Neuroscience

Petit, Olivia; Javornik, Ana & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

We eat first with our (digital) eyes: Enhancing mental simulation of eating experiences via visual-enabling technologies

Journal of Retailing

Velasco, Carlos & Veflen, Nina (2021)

Aesthetic plating and motivation in context

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science Doi: 10.1016/j.ijgfs.2021.100323 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Previous research has suggested that people prefer balanced over unbalanced plating compositions. Importantly, though, the question remains as to whether plating balance influences consumers' associations of plating with approach and avoidance motivation. In the present research, we study how plating balance influence people's aesthetic evaluations and approach and avoidance associations. In addition, based on the idea that context can influence aesthetic evaluations, we manipulate whether the different plates are presented in regular dining or high-end restaurant scenarios. Throughout two experiments we extend previous findings suggesting that plating balance influences aesthetic pleasure. We find that balanced plates are considered more aesthetically pleasing than unbalanced plates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that people associate balanced plates more (less) strongly with approach (avoidance) words relative to unbalanced plates. Notably, our analysis failed to reveal an effect of plating context on either aesthetic pleasure or approach and avoidance ratings. This suggests that balance may be a robust feature in aesthetic plating when it comes to its influence on these variables.

Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2021)

Multisensory experiences: A primer

Frontiers of Computer Science

Escobar, Francisco Jose Barbosa; Petit, Olivia & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Virtual terroir and the premium coffee experience

Frontiers in Psychology Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.586983

With its origin-centric value proposition, the specialty coffee industry seeks to educate consumers about the value of the origin of coffee and how the relationship with farmers ensures quality and makes coffee a premium product. While the industry has widely used stories and visual cues to communicate this added value, research studying whether and how these efforts influence consumers' experiences is scarce. Through three experiments, we explored the effect of images that evoke the terroir of coffee on the perception of premiumness. Our results revealed that online images that resembled the broad origin of coffee (i.e., a farm) could influence premiumness expectations of coffee (Experiment 1). Similarly, a virtual reality environment that depicted this broad origin (vs. a control but not a city atmosphere) could enhance the perception of coffee premiumness for non-expert consumers (Experiment 2) and the enjoyment of the experience for coffee professionals (Experiment 3). Importantly, we found that congruence between the coffee and the virtual reality (VR) atmospheres mediated how much non-experts enjoyed the experience (Experiment 2). VR atmospheres also influenced expectations of sweetness and acidity for non-experts (Experiment 2). These findings serve as a steppingstone for further exploration of the effects of congruence between visual cues and product/brand attributes on premiumness expectations and perception, and more generally on consumer experience. From a practical standpoint, this study provides insights into key aspects for the development of immersive virtual product experiences.

Almiron, Paula; Escobar, Francisco Jose Barbosa, Pathak, Abhishek, Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Searching for the sound of premium beer

Food Quality and Preference, 88 Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104088 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

One common definition of premiumness is as a higher quality and more expensive variant of a product than other members of the category or reference class. Premiumness can effectively be conveyed by means of different sensory cues (e.g., colours, sounds, weight). However, to date, research linking the sound of a product’s pack-aging with premiumness is sparse. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that consumers associate different levels of beer premiumness with the sounds of opening and pouring of bottles and cans. We report the results of two online experiments. Experiment 1 explored the effect of two sound properties associated with beer can and bottle opening and pouring (sound pressure and frequency) on the perception of premiumness. Experiment 2 used semantic differential scales (e.g., bad-good, passive-active) to evaluate the meanings people tend to associate with different auditory cues. The analyses revealed that participants perceived: 1) bottle sounds to be more premium overall than can sounds, 2) pouring sounds as more premium than opening sounds, and 3) higher pressure sounds as more premium than lower pressure sounds. Additionally, premiumness was positively correlated with semantic differentials of dead-alive, and the evaluative terms of sad-happy, awful-nice, and bad- good, which highlights the perceived quality and premium character of a beer when conveyed auditorily.

Motoki, Kosuke & Velasco, Carlos (2021)

Taste-shape correspondences in context

Food Quality and Preference, 88 Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104082

A significant body of research demonstrates the existence of taste-shape correspondences. People associate tastes and visual shapes non-randomly. For example, round shapes are associated with sweet taste, while angular shapes are associated with sour and bitter tastes. Previous studies have focused on one-to-one taste-shape associations, where either geometrical shapes or shapes on a product’s packaging have been presented in isolation and evaluated separately. However, in real-life product displays, products are typically surrounded by other products. We examined whether shape contexts can influence the taste expectations associated with target products across five experiments (n = 1087) using geometrical and shapes on the packaging varying in curvature. Participants saw a display set (target shape in the middle surrounded by shapes on both sides) and evaluated the target shape in different taste scales. The first two experiments (within-participants design) failed to reveal that shape contexts can influence the taste expectations of the target. However, the subsequent three experiments (between-participants design) consistently demonstrated that shape contexts influence taste expectations associated with the target. In the latter experiments, we manipulated only the surrounding shapes and fixed target shapes as neutral (intermediate between angular and round shapes). When the surrounding shapes were angular (vs. round), the target shapes were rated as sweeter/more umami and less sour/salty/bitter. Emotions (valence and arousal) mediated the relationship between shape contexts and taste expectations. We discuss the results in light of the theory on crossmodal correspondences and relative compatibility effects. The findings provide insights for food marketers when it comes to designing product package displays to convey taste information more effectively.

Evanschitzky, Heiner; Bartikowski, Boris, Baines, Tim, Blut, Markus, Brock, Christian, Kleinlercher, Kristina, Naik, Parikshit, Petit, Olivia, Rudolph, Thomas, Spence, Charles, Velasco, Carlos & Wünderlich, Nancy V. (2020)

Digital disruption in retailing and beyond

Journal of Service Management Research (SMR), 4, s. 187- 204.

The increased disruption of business models through digital technologies creates opportunities and challenges for retail businesses and their network partners. Digital transformation – the process of digitalization of previously analogue operations, procedures, organizational tasks, and managerial processes in order to drive value for customers, employees and other stakeholders – is the order of the day. With that in mind, this article provides a purposeful overview of research in the field of digital transformation with a focus on retailing and customer- facing functions of digital technologies such as managing customer journeys, assessing the impact of sensory marketing and the use of service robots on the one hand, and their strategic implications for business models such as servitization on the other. This article concludes by highlighting immediate as well as long-term challenges in the field, with a focus on disruptive technologies, innovationsand trends that retail marketing-management will likely face in the near future.

Bravo-Moncayo, Luis; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe & Velasco, Carlos (2020)

The effects of noise control in coffee tasting experiences

Food Quality and Preference Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104020

The present research investigates the general effect of auditory noise control in individual’s eating and drinking experiences. In particular, the study applied passive vs active commercial headphone noise control techniques to an urban drinking situation. Here, each participant drank twice the same coffee while exposed to a louder (~85 dBA) vs less loud (−20 dBs) version of the same background noise of a food court in busy hours. Note that by loud, louder, and less loud, we are referring to differences in the sound level of the noise. Results suggest that most consumers tend to be less sensitive to specific sensory and hedonic attributes of the coffee under louder noise (sweetness, bitterness, acidity, flavor/aroma intensity, flavor-liking, sound-liking, flavor-sound-matching), and less willing to pay and purchase the coffee, relative to less loud sounds. This was more evident concerning the perceived bitterness and aroma intensity of the coffee. The effects reported are mainly attributed to the differences in noise level during taste, and discussed based on theory on crossmodal correspondences, and attention (e.g., louder noise may diminish the ability to attend to specific elements of the experience). When thinking of public health, for example, these results suggest that differences in urban noise level may moderate behavior during food/drink situations (e.g., potentially modulating sugar intake).

Betancur, Maria Isabel; Motoki, Kosuke, Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2020)

Factors influencing the choice of beer: A review

Food Research International, 137 Doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109367 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Research on those variables that have been shown to influence the consumer’s choice of beer is reviewed. The focus is on the choice of whether to drink beer as opposed to a beverage from another category, and to a greater extent, the choice between different types or styles of beer. Inspired by previous research on a diverse array of factors that have been shown to influence food and beverage choice, the review examines how beer choice is driven by consumer variables (covering biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors), product-intrinsic attributes (the sensory aspects of the beer itself), product-extrinsic attributes (external sensory characteristics, such as packaging), and contextual and environmental influences. These situational factors refer to variables such as the location where choice/consumption takes place (i.e., on- versus off-trade), as well as the context, occasion, and reason for drinking. Current trends related to choice and consumption, such as the emerging interest in beer-food pairing, are also examined. The review groups these attributes which affect people’s beer wanting, choice, and purchase in order to understand the beer consumer’s choice process. Along with general conclusions, a number of key directions for future research are also presented, given that the relative contribution of each type of factor on consumer’s choice behaviour is still unclear.

Motoki, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi, Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2020)

Contextual acceptance of insect-based foods

Food Quality and Preference, 85 Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.103982 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Insect-based foods have gained much attention as an alternative source of protein in recent years because of their high nutritional content and low production costs. However, consumer acceptance of insect-based foods still poses a big challenge in many societies. Across three studies, we examined how social companions (alone, friend, family, acquaintance, partner) and location (cafe, bar, pub, food festival) are associated with people’s willingness to eat insect-based foods. We also examined the positive arousing (fun, excitement) and positive calming (romance, tranquility) emotions that were evoked by several eating contexts. The results of Studies 1 and 2 revealed that participants expected that they would be more willing to eat insect-based foods with friends (vs. alone, family, acquaintance, partner) and in pubs and at food festivals (vs. in a cafe, bar). The results of Study 3 replicated the main findings of the first two studies using the actual names (not pictures) of insect-based food products, namely ‘mealworm burger’ and ‘cricket chocolate bar’. Moreover, these contexts, where people would be more willing to eat insect-based foods, were associated with positive arousing emotions (fun, excitement) rather than positive calming emotions (romance, tranquility). Taken together, then, these findings reveal the role of contexts associated with positive arousing emotions in eating insect-based foods and provide practical advice concerning the situations in which the consumer’s acceptance of insect-based foods may be increased.

Velasco, Carlos; Pathak, Abhishek, Woods, Andy T., Corredor, Andres & Elliot, Andrew J. (2020)

The relation between symmetry in food packaging and approach and avoidance words

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (QJEP) Doi: 10.1177/1747021819887172 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Motoki, Kosuke; Saito, Toshiki, Park, Jaewood, Velasco, Carlos, Spence, Charles & Sugiura, Motoaki (2020)

Tasting names: Systematic investigations of taste-speech sounds associations

Food Quality and Preference, 80 Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.103801 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Pathak, Abhishek; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

The sound of branding: An analysis of the initial phonemes of popular brand names

Journal of Brand Management Doi: 10.1057/s41262-019-00183-5 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

In the marketing literature, the ‘K efect’ refers to the claim that the letter K is overrepresented as the initial letter of brand names. To date, however, most fndings have only considered the frequency of the written letters incorporated into brand names. Here, we argue that since letters sometimes sound diferent when pronounced in diferent words (e.g., ‘C’ in Cartier vs. Cisco), a phonemic analysis of the initial phonemes is likely to be more insightful than merely a comparison of the written form (as reported by previous researchers). With this in mind, the initial phonemes of top brand names were analyzed and compared with: (1) words in the dictionary; (2) a corpus of contemporary American English; and (3) the most popular current children’s names in the USA. We also analyzed a diferent list of top brands, including both corporate brand names (e.g., Procter & Gamble) as well as the product-related brand names (e.g., Pantene). We conclude by reporting the most underrepresented [vowels (/aʊ/, /ɜː/, /ɔɪ/, /ɔː/) and consonants (/r/, /ʒ/, /l/, /θ/)] and overrepresented [vowels (/iː/, /əʊ/) and consonants (/j/, /z/, /f/, /dʒ/, /p/, /j/, /t/)] initial phonemes in the brand names vis-à-vis the current linguistic naming conventions.

Spence, Charles; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe, Velasco, Carlos & Wang, Qian Janice (2019)

Auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behavior

Brill Academic Publishers.

Pathak, Abhishek; Velasco, Carlos, Petit, Olivia & Calvert, Gemma (2019)

Going to great lengths in the pursuit of luxury: How longer brand names can enhance the luxury perception of a brand

Psychology & Marketing Doi: 10.1002/mar.21247 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Brand names are a crucial part of the brand equity and marketing strategy of any company. Research suggests that companies spend considerable time and money to create suitable names for their brands and products. This paper uses the Zipf's law (or Principle of Least Effort) to analyze the perceived luxuriousness of brand names. One of the most robust laws in linguistics, Zipf's law describes the inverse relationship between a word's length and its frequency i.e., the more frequently a word is used in language, the shorter it tends to be. Zipf's law has been applied to many fields of science and in this paper, we provide evidence for the idea that because polysyllabic words (and brand names) are rare in everyday conversation, they are considered as more complex, distant, and abstract and that the use of longer brand names can enhance the perception of how luxurious a brand is (compared with shorter brand names, which are considered to be close, frequent, and concrete to consumers). Our results suggest that shorter names (mono‐syllabic) are better suited to basic brands whereas longer names (tri‐syllabic or more) are more appropriate for luxury brands.

Obrist, Marianna; Tu, Yunwen, Yao, Lining & Velasco, Carlos (2019)

Space Food Experiences: Designing Passenger’s Eating Experiences for Future Space Travel Scenarios

Frontiers of Computer Science Doi: 10.3389/fcomp.2019.00003 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Given the increasing possibilities of short- and long-term space travel to the Moon and Mars, it is essential not only to design nutritious foods but also to make eating an enjoyable experience. To date, though, perhaps unsurprisingly, most research on space food design has emphasized the functional and nutritional aspects of food, and there are no systematic studies that focus on the human experience of eating in space. It is known, however, that food has a multi-dimensional and multi-sensorial role in societies and that sensory, hedonic, and social features of eating and food design should not be underestimated. Here, we present how research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) can provide a user-centered design approach to co-create innovative ideas around the future of food and eating in space, balancing functional and experiential factors. Based on our research and inspired by advances in human-food interaction design, we have developed three design concepts that integrate and tackle the functional, sensorial, emotional, social, and environmental/atmospheric aspects of “eating experiences in space.” We can particularly capitalize on recent technological advances around digital fabrication, 3D food printing technology, and virtual and augmented reality to enable the design and integration of multisensory eating experiences. We also highlight that in future space travel, the target users will diversify. In relation to such future users, we need to consider not only astronauts (current users, paid to do the job) but also paying customers (non-astronauts) who will be able to book a space holiday to the Moon or Mars. To create the right conditions for space travel and satisfy those users, we need to innovate beyond the initial excitement of designing an “eating like an astronaut” experience. To do so we carried out a three-stage research and design process: (1) first we collected data on users imaginary of eating in space through an online survey (n = 215) to conceptualize eating experiences for short- and long-term space flights (i.e., Moon, Mars); then (2) we iteratively created three design concepts, and finally (3) asked experts in the field for their feedback on our designs. We discuss our results in the context of the wider multisensory experience design and research space.

Pathak, Abhishek; Velasco, Carlos & Calvert, Gemma (2019)

Implicit and Explicit Identification of Counterfeit Brand Logos based on Logotype Transposition

Journal of Product & Brand Management Doi: 10.1108/JPBM-06-2018-1921 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Pathak, Abhishek; Velasco, Carlos & Calvert, Gemma (2019)

Identifying counterfeit brandlogos: on the importance of the first and last letters of a logotype

European Journal of Marketing Doi: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0586 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Counterfeiting is a menace in the emerging markets and many successful brands are falling prey to it. Counterfeit brands not only deceive consumers but also fuel a demand for lower priced replicas, both of which can devalue the bona-fide brand. But can consumers accurately identify a counterfeit logo? This paper aims to explore this question and examines the accuracy and speed with which a consumer can identify a counterfeit (vs original) logo.

Spence, Charles; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe, Velasco, Carlos & Wang, Qian Janice (2019)

Extrinsic Auditory Contributions to Food Perception & Consumer Behaviour: An Interdisciplinary Review

Multisensory Research, 32(4-5), s. 275- 318. Doi: 10.1163/22134808-20191403 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Food product-extrinsic sounds (i.e., those auditory stimuli that are not linked directly to a food or beverage product, or its packaging) have been shown to exert a significant influence over various aspects of food perception and consumer behaviour, often operating outside of conscious awareness. In this review, we summarise the latest evidence concerning the various ways in which what we hear can influence what we taste. According to one line of empirical research, background noise interferes with tasting, due to attentional distraction. A separate body of marketing-relevant research demonstrates that music can be used to bias consumers’ food perception, judgments, and purchasing/consumption behaviour in various ways. Some of these effects appear to be driven by the arousal elicited by loud music as well as the entrainment of people’s behaviour to the musical beat. However, semantic priming effects linked to the type and style of music are also relevant. Another route by which music influences food perception comes from the observation that our liking/preference for the music that we happen to be listening to carries over to influence our hedonic judgments of what we are tasting. A final route by which hearing influences tasting relates to the emerging field of ‘sonic seasoning’. A developing body of research now demonstrates that people often rate tasting experiences differently when listening to soundtracks that have been designed to be (or are chosen because they are) congruent with specific flavour experiences (e.g., when compared to when listening to other soundtracks, or else when tasting in silence). Taken together, such results lead to the growing realization that the crossmodal influences of music and noise on food perception and consumer behaviour may have some important if, as yet, unrecognized implications for public health.

Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory consumer-packaging interaction (CPI): The role of new technologies

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

The recent development of various sensory-enabling technologies (SETs) has attracted the interest of those marketers wishing to enhance the online and in-store multisensory experiences that they offer to customers. Such technologies have also proven relevant to the delivery of more engaging multisensory human-food interactions. However, to date, little work has been conducted on their potential role in the interaction between consumers and product packaging, a key element of branding. In this chapter, we present an overview of how the latest SETs can be (and in some cases already are being) incorporated into the packaging of various different products in order to deliver novel multisensory product experiences. We predict that these technologies will increasingly come to enhance the scope of packaging as a marketing communication tool. They might, for instance, be used to project people into consumption experiences, promote brand engagement, as well as improve product evaluation, by means of, say, augmented reality applications. Such technologies will become an increasingly important element in the consumer experience. They may even be able to enhance the perceived sensory properties of products, help in personalization, and/or help regulating our eating behaviour.

Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos & Petit, Olivia (2019)

The consumer neuroscience of multisensory packaging design

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Given the explosion of interest in the fields of multisensory packaging design and consumer neuroscience/neuromarketing in recent years, it is natural to wonder what relevance the latter approaches have as far as the optimization of the former is concerned. In this review, we chart the use of neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging by those wishing to understand the neural response of consumers to various examples of multisensory product packaging. The hope is that such insights might one day help businesses to better predict the performance of product packaging, given specific strategic objectives. To date, much of the research has focused simply on determining the network of brain areas that are involved in processing visual images of product packaging. Intriguingly, though, the latest findings now suggest that composite brain measures seen in response to product communication may, under certain conditions at least, be used to predict a product’s sales success in the marketplace. We highlight the key challenges associated with using neuroimaging techniques for packaging research and stress the limitations (such as the challenges associated with assessing the influence of tactile and olfactory attributes of the packaging, as well as collecting repeated measures when consumers interact with the product in its packaging). We end by reviewing the latest insights that have emerged from the use of neuroscience-inspired (consumer neuroscience) techniques (including so-called implicit tests, such as the Implicit Association Test, and eye-tracking), that have managed to overcome some of the limitations associated with neuroimaging.

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory premium packaging

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Traditionally, the design of brand elements and marketing communications has focused on visual and/or audiovisual attributes in order to convey a specific brand positioning or concept to the consumer. However, the majority of consumers’ everyday experiences go beyond simply just audiovisual inputs. With this in mind, in this chapter, we take an inclusive multisensory approach to the concept of premiumness, one that also incorporates tactile elements and briefly considers the chemical senses. In particular, we present an overview of the concept and review key research findings highlighting specific associations between different sensory attributes and premiumness, luxury, or their specific component dimensions, in the context of product packaging. Generally speaking, there is not yet a great deal of research detailing how to express premiumness via specifically multisensory packaging cues beyond its visual aspects. However, what evidence there is does appear to suggest that the concept can be conveyed through multiple sensory channels, thus positioning this theme as providing a clear opportunity for brand innovation and differentiation.

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

The multisensory analysis of product packaging framework

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

The last few years have seen an ongoing increase of interest in multisensory brand analysis and design. However, with the growing opportunity to design for each and every one of the customer’s senses, comes the challenge of knowing how best to conceptualize multisensory design without immediately becoming overwhelmed by the range of possibilities (not to mention potential multisensory stimulus combinations on offer). In this chapter, the various approaches that have been put forward over the years in order to facilitate intelligent/efficient multisensory design innovation are reviewed. The roles of crossmodal congruency, processing fluency, and sensory dominance in the context of multisensory packaging design are discussed. Based on the broad literature covered, we outline a novel framework for the Multisensory Analysis of Product Packaging (MAPP). We distinguish between different kinds of sensory information, elucidate some of the key ways in which they interact, and highlight a number of the most important questions that ought to be considered when it comes to the design of multisensory product packaging.

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

The role of typeface in packaging design

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Choosing the appropriate typeface and font for use in product packaging is an important part of the design process (or at least it should be). Yet, at the same time, it is also an area that is often neglected in books on packaging. This is particularly surprising given that virtually all packaging incorporates some text (e.g., logotypes, slogans, product information). A growing body of empirical research, however, now demonstrates that typefaces can be used to convey/reinforce specific brand associations. Insights into which features of the typeface might be best suited to conveying (or priming) different meanings emerged from the older research on the semantic differential technique and from more recent research on the crossmodal correspondences. Choosing typeface and font for the packaging that is incongruent with what a product stands for can negatively impact the consumer’s perception/evaluation of a brand. Meanwhile, iconic typefaces may, over time, come to be attached with specific brands, given our repeated exposure to them on packaging in the marketplace. In this chapter, we review the emerging literature on the scientific approach to typeface design, stressing the key role it can play in creating the most persuasive packaging solutions.

Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2019)

Packaging colour and its multiple roles

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Colour is a key element in multisensory packaging design and branding. In-store, and increasingly online, it plays an important role in guiding the shopper’s attention. A distinctive colour/colour scheme can also act as a valuable brand asset, signalling a specific brand and everything that it stands for. That said, in many product categories, packaging colour is primarily used to convey product-related information/meaning. In any one of these roles, packaging colour can exert a significant influence over the customer’s product experience even when the latter happens to be consumed away from its packaging. In this review, we highlight the multiple roles played by packaging colour and stress the contextual determinants of its meaning. We also touch on the individual differences in colour associations that can hinder the effective implementation of packaging design for those wanting to deliver colour schemes that convey the ‘right’ meaning to different groups of consumers (e.g., cross-culturally).

Velasco, Carlos; Adams, Carmen, Petit, Olivia & Spence, Charles (2019)

On the localization of tastes and tasty products in 2D space

Food Quality and Preference, 71, s. 438- 446. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.08.018 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People map different sensory stimuli, and words that describe/refer to those stimuli, onto spatial dimensions in a manner that is non-arbitrary. Here, we evaluate whether people also associate basic taste words and products with characteristic tastes with a distinctive location (e.g., upper right corner) or a more general direction (e.g., more right than left). Based on prior research on taste and location valence, we predicted that sweetness would be associated with higher vertical spatial positions than the other basic tastes. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 support the view that participants do indeed locate the word “sweet” higher in space than the word “bitter”. In Experiment 2, the participants also positioned products that are typically expected to be sweet (cupcake and honey) or bitter (beer and coffee) spatially. Overall, the sweet-tasting products were assigned to higher locations than were the bitter-tasting products. In order to test whether taste/location congruency would also affect product evaluations, a third experiment was conducted. The results of Experiment 3A (between participants) and 3B (within participants) failed to provide any evidence for the existence of consistent taste/location congruency effects. However, in Experiment 3B, the participants evaluated the sweet products as looking more appetizing when presented in upper relative to lower shelf locations. In none of the three studies was an association found between tastes and positions along the horizontal axis. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet and bitter tastes are differentially located in vertical, but not horizontal, space. The potential implications of these findings for both our understanding of the crossmodal correspondences, as well as for taste evaluation, and product placement are discussed.

Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2018)

Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behaviour

Marketing letters, 29(4), s. 435- 449. Doi: 10.1007/s11002-018-9473-6 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Velasco, Carlos; Beh, Eric J., Le, Tiffany & Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando (2018)

The shapes associated with the concept of ‘sweet and sour’ foods

Food Quality and Preference, 68(September), s. 250- 257. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.03.012 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Research on taste-shape correspondences has focused on one-to-one taste/shape matching tasks. However, foods and drinks tend to involve multiple shapes (or shape attributes) and tastes that co-occur at different moments of our eating experiences. In the present research, we assessed whether food concepts involving more than one taste (e.g., “sweet and sour”) would be associated with pairs of round and/or angular shapes. The participants matched pairs comprising angular and round shapes with “sweet and sour” food concepts more often than with other single taste and taste combination concepts, in a manner that is broadly consistent with studies involving one-to-one taste/shape matches. These results were observed both when the participants were presented with the shape pairs alone (Experiment 1) or along with a product’s packaging (Experiment 2). We conclude by presenting possible explanations for the results obtained, as well as directions for future research

Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2018)

On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the ‘food and beverage’ and ‘home and personal care’ categories

Food Quality and Preference, 68, s. 226- 237. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.03.008 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Colour is perhaps the single most important element as far as the design of multisensory product packaging is concerned. It plays a key role in capturing the attention of the shopper in-store. A distinctive colour, or colour scheme, can also act as a valuable brand attribute (think here only of the signature colour schemes of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate). In many categories, though, colour is used to convey information to the consumer about a product’s sensory properties (e.g., taste or flavour, say), or else to prime other more abstract brand attributes (such as, for example, premium, natural, or healthy). However, packaging colour can also affect the customer’s product experience as well: Indeed, a growing body of empirical research now shows that packaging colour affects everything from the expected and perceived taste and flavour of food and beverage products through to the fragrance of home and personal care items. Packaging colour, then, plays a dominant role at several stages of the consumer’s product experience.

Velasco, Carlos; Hyndman, Sarah & Spence, Charles (2018)

The role of typeface curvilinearity on taste expectations and perception

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 11, s. 63- 74. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijgfs.2017.11.007 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People associate specific shape properties with basic taste attributes (such as sweet, bitter, and sour). It has been suggested that more preferred visual aesthetic features are matched to sweetness whereas less-preferred features are matched with tastes such as bitter and sour instead. Given the range of visual aesthetic features that have been shown to be associated with typeface designs, it would seem reasonable to suggest that typefaces might therefore be associated with specific taste properties as well. Should that be the case, one might then wonder whether viewing text presented in, say, a rounder typeface would also potentially influence the perception of sweetness, as compared to viewing the same information when presented in a more angular typeface. Here, we summarize the latest findings supporting the existence of a crossmodal correspondence between typeface features, in particular curvilinearity, and basic tastes. Moreover, we present initial evidence that suggests that, under certain circumstances, typeface curvilinearity can influence taste ratings. Given such evidence, it can be argued that typeface may well be an important, if often neglected, aspect of our everyday lives which can be potentially useful in the design of food and drink product and brand experiences.

Turoman, Nora; Velasco, Carlos, Chen, Yi-Chuan, Huang, Pi-Chun & Spence, Charles (2018)

Symmetry and its role in the crossmodal correspondence between shape and taste

Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 80(3), s. 738- 751. Doi: 10.3758/s13414-017-1463-x - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Despite the rapid growth of research on the crossmodal correspondence between visually presented shapes and basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty), most studies that have been published to date have focused on shape contour (roundness/angularity). Meanwhile, other important features, such as symmetry, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the shape–taste correspondence, have rarely been studied. Over two experiments, we systematically manipulated the symmetry and contours of shapes and measured the influences of these variables on shape–taste correspondences. Furthermore, we investigated a potential underlying mechanism, based on the common affective appraisal of stimuli in different sensory modalities. We replicated the results of previous studies showing that round shapes are associated with sweet taste, whereas angular shapes are associated with sour and bitter tastes. In addition, we demonstrated a novel effect that the symmetry group of a shape influences how it is associated with taste. A significant relationship was observed between the taste and appraisal scores of the shapes, suggesting that the affective factors of pleasantness and threat underlie the shape–taste correspondence. These results were consistent across cultures, when we compared participants from Taiwanese and Western (UK, US, Canada) cultures. Our findings highlight that perceived pleasantness and threat are culturally common factors involved in at least some crossmodal correspondences.

Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T., Wan, Xiaoang, Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro, Bernal-Torres, Cesar, Cheok, Adrian David & Spence, Charles (2018)

The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages

Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 12(2), s. 236- 248. Doi: 10.1037/aca0000120 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People associate tastes and taste words (e.g., “bitter,” “sweet,” etc.) with shape features in predictable ways. In the present study, we evaluate how the curvature and boldness of typeface influences the gustatory taste (i.e., bitter, salty, sour, and sweet) associated with the typefaces of words written in 3 languages (Spanish, English, and Chinese). The study also included participants from 3 countries: Colombia, the United Kingdom, and China. Consistent with previous research, rounder typefaces were reliably associated with the word sweet, whereas more angular typefaces were associated with the other tastes in all 3 languages and countries. These results provide robust support for the notion that shape curvature is differentially matched to tastes, in a manner that is similar, across countries. Moreover, the results also indicate that all of the participants evaluated the angular typefaces in Spanish and English as more bitter, salty, and sour than the round typefaces in Spanish and English, but this angular/rounded effect was not found with Chinese typefaces. Additionally, the rounder typefaces were evaluated as sweeter than the angular typefaces in all languages and countries. Given that the Chinese round and angular characters differed only in terms of the perceived curvature (not liking, familiarity, and clarity), it is not possible to conclude that liking accounts for all the correspondences that we report. Possible mechanisms and directions for future research are discussed

Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah, Steenhaut, Kris, van Ee, Raymond & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Using sound to enhance taste experiences: An overview

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), 10525 LNCS, s. 316- 330. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-67738-5_19

Ablart, Damien; Velasco, Carlos, Vi, Chi Thanh, Gatti, Elia & Obrist, Marianna (2017)

The how and why behind a multisensory art display

Interactions, 24(6), s. 38- 43. Doi: 10.1145/3137091

Spence, Charles; Obrist, Marianna, Velasco, Carlos & Ranasinghe, Nimesha (2017)

Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 107, s. 62- 74. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.003 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Abhishek, Pathak; Gemma, Calvert & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Evaluating the impact of early- and late-acquired phonemes on the luxury appeal of brand names

Journal of Brand Management, 24(6), s. 522- 545. Doi: 10.1057/s41262-017-0048-2

Obrist, Marianna; Gatti, Elia, Maggioni, Emanuela, Vi, Chi Thanh & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Multisensory Experiences in HCI

IEEE Multimedia, 24(2), s. 9- 13. Doi: 10.1109/MMUL.2017.33

Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles, Velasco, Carlos, Woods, Andy T. & Cheok, Adrian David (2017)

Changing the influence of portion size on consumer behavior via imagined consumption

Journal of Business Research, 75, s. 240- 248. Doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.07.021

Van Doorn, George; Woods, Andy T., Levitan, Carmel, Wan, Xiaoang, Velasco, Carlos, Bernal-Torres, Cesar & Spence, Charles (2017)

Does the shape of a cup influence coffee taste expectations? A cross-cultural, online study

Food Quality and Preference, 56, s. 201- 211. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.10.013

Velasco, Carlos; Sunaga, Tsutomu, Narumi, Takuji, Spence, Charles & Petit, Olivia (1)

Multisensory consumer-computer interaction

Journal of Business Research [Kronikk]

Spence, Charles; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe, Velasco, Carlos & Wang, Qian Janice (1)

Introduction to the special issue on auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behaviour

Multisensory Research [Kronikk]

Velasco, Carlos; Karunanayaka, Kasun & Nijholt, Anton (1)

Editorial: Multisensory Human-Food Interaction

Frontiers in Psychology [Kronikk]

Velasco, Carlos; Nijholt, Anton, Spence, Charles, Narumi, Takuji, Motoki, Kosuke, Huisman, Gijs & Obrist, Marianna (2020)

Multisensory Approaches to Human-Food Interaction

[Academic lecture]. Workshop on Multisensory Approaches to Human-Food Interaction.

Velasco, Carlos & Veflen, Nina (2019)

Evaluating the role of context in consumers’ aesthetic evaluations of, and approach / avoidance associations with, plating symmetry

[Academic lecture]. Pangborn 2019.

Spence, Charles; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe, Velasco, Carlos & Wang, Qian Janice (2019)

Extrinsic Auditory Contributions to Food Perception & Consumer Behaviour: an Interdisciplinary Review

Spence, Charles; Reinoso-Carvalho, Felipe, Velasco, Carlos & Wang, Qian Janice (red.). Auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behavior

Food product-extrinsic sounds (i.e., those auditory stimuli that are not linked directly to a food or beverage product, or its packaging) have been shown to exert a significant influence over various aspects of food perception and consumer behaviour, often operating outside of conscious awareness. In this review, we summarise the latest evidence concerning the various ways in which what we hear can influence what we taste. According to one line of empirical research, background noise interferes with tasting, due to attentional distraction. A separate body of marketing-relevant research demonstrates that music can be used to bias consumers’ food perception, judgments, and purchasing/consumption behaviour in various ways. Some of these effects appear to be driven by the arousal elicited by loud music as well as the entrainment of people’s behaviour to the musical beat. However, semantic priming effects linked to the type and style of music are also relevant. Another route by which music influences food perception comes from the observation that our liking/preference for the music that we happen to be listening to carries over to influence our hedonic judgments of what we are tasting. A final route by which hearing influences tasting relates to the emerging field of ‘sonic seasoning’. A developing body of research now demonstrates that people often rate tasting experiences differently when listening to soundtracks that have been designed to be (or are chosen because they are) congruent with specific flavour experiences (e.g., when compared to when listening to other soundtracks, or else when tasting in silence). Taken together, such results lead to the growing realization that the crossmodal influences of music and noise on food perception and consumer behaviour may have some important if, as yet, unrecognized implications for public health.

Obrist, Marianna; Tu, Yunwen, Yao, Lining & Velasco, Carlos (2018)

Not just functional, nutritious, but also experiential: Designing eating experiences for space travel

[Academic lecture]. 69th International Astronautical Congress.

Velasco, Carlos; Tu, Yunwen & Obrist, Marianna (2018)

Towards multisensory storytelling with taste and flavor

[Academic lecture]. ICMI.

Velasco, Carlos (2018)

Seasoning food with sound

[Popular scientific article]. The Pembrokian, s. 18- 20.

Velasco, Carlos; Nijholt, Anton & Karunanayaka, Kasun (2018)

Multisensory Human-Food Interaction

[Scientific book]. Frontiers Media.

Obrist, Marianna; Marti, Patrizia, Velasco, Carlos, Tu, Yunwen, Narumi, Takuji & Møller, Naja L. Holten (2018)

The future of computing and food

[Academic lecture]. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.

Velasco, Carlos; Adams, Carmen, Petit, Olivia & Spence, Charles (2018)

Localizing taste and products with characteristic tastes in 2D space

[Academic lecture]. SenseAsia 2018.

Velasco, Carlos; Nijholt, Anton, Obrist, Marianna, Okajima, Katsunori, Schifferstein, Rick & Spence, Charles (2017)

2nd international workshop on multisensorial approaches to human-food interaction

[Academic lecture]. ICMI.

Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Velasco, Carlos, Ariza, Luis Eduardo, Salgado, Rodrigo & Moreno, Ana Maria (2017)

The four moments of experience: Streamlining the process of packaging development

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. ESOMAR Publication Series Volume S378 LA 2017

Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Designing multisensory eating and drinking experiences

[Popular scientific article]. insight+

Akademisk grad
År Akademisk institusjon Grad
2015 Oxford University - Pembroke D.Phil. in Experimental Psychology
Arbeidserfaring
År Arbeidsgiver Tittel
2019 - Present BI Norwegina Business School Associate professor
2016 - 2019 BI Norwegian Business School Assistant Professor
2015 - 2017 University of Oxford Research Affiliate
2015 - 2016 Imagineering Institute Research Fellow
2015 - 2015 University of Sussex Research Fellow